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Review Article

Year: 2021 |Volume: 2 | Issue: 04 |Pages: 20-32


About Author

Rajput SK.1 , pawar U2 , Irole SA3 , Amrutkar M4 , Deshmukh A5

1Associate Professor Balrog Department YMT Ayurved College and Hospital, Kharghar.

2P. G Scholar, RSBK Department YMT Ayurved College and Hospital, Kharghar.

3P. G Scholar, Agadtantra Department YMT Ayurved College and Hospital, Kharghar.

4Associate Professor , RSBK Department YMT Ayurved College and Hospital , Kharghar

5Associate Professor , RSBK Department YMT Ayurved College and Hospital , Kharghar

Correspondence Address:

Dr.Sandeep Kisan Rajput- Associate Professor Balrog Department YMT Ayurved College and Hospital, Kharghar E-mail –

Date of Acceptance: 2021-04-28

Date of Publication:2021-05-01


Source of Support: NIL

Conflict of Interest: NIL

How To Cite This Article: Rajput SK. , Pawar U, Irole SA., & Systemic Review Of Gandush Drugs Against Oral Care W.S.R. To Ashtang Hrudaya.Int. J Ind. Med. 2021;2(4):20-32


The name of Ayurveda originates from two Indian words Ayu means life and Veda means knowledge. In a broad sense it means knowledge concerning the maintenances of life. Ayurveda is an ancient science of life from 5000 years. There are no if and or buts about it oral health is a huge part of our general health and a welled balanced. Oral diseases continue to be   major health problem world wild there for it is very important to maintain oral hygiene for maintenance of health and longevity of human Being in particular age group . Older age groups are also at increased risk mouth dryness for example due to lack of saliva etc. In ancient Ayurvedic text have medicinal and cariogenic property. Its oil pulling practice in various systemic diseases. If traditional medicine is to be acknowledge as part of primary health Care scientific validation of the Ayurvedic dental health practices could justify their incorporation into modern dental Care. Ayurveda recommends Gandusha as a specialized therapy for good oral hygiene. It will maintain and promote the oral hygiene by exerting the cleansing action and by increasing the defense mechanism in the oral cavity. Gandusha is used for both prevention and treatment of oral diseases. The present review article highlights how the Gandusha therapy will act as a basic tool for good oral hygiene.

Keywords: Gandush, oral health, mouth. Stomatitis


Mouth is considered as the mirror of the health of human body. (1) Oral cavity harbors billions of microorganisms ; some of these contribute to the development or progression of systemic diseases such as cardiovascular disease, diabetes mellitus etc. oral health and  general health are interrelated.(2) Oral disease continue to be a major health problem world wide .So it is important to maintain the oral hygiene for maintenance of the general health in society. (3) The main aim of Ayurveda is to preserve the healthy person remains as healthy and also treat or cure the person who is suffered from any diseases in such way that the disease is snatch away from its root cause.(4)  Gandush upkram is recommends as a dincharya upkram for prevention and promotion of good Oral  health.(5) Oral cavity is such a part of the body which is constantly exposed to many risk factors in day to day life. And risk of oral disorders is also increased so it is very important to maintain oral health. Regular practice of Gand?sha will help to regain good oral hygiene. In Ayurveda, Gand?sha is explained as one of the routine procedures under the context of daily regimens (dinacharya)6 3,4 It can be done in both healthy and disease person.

Gandush you fill the liquid or oil in the mouth fully so there is no movement in your mouth and so your mouth is  completely distend, and it is held until there is lacrimation, nasal discharge and then patient is spit this out.  This process is very good for teeth and it vanishes all the impurities and toxins, it stretches your check muscles therefore several reasons why you do that.(7) Types of gandush as follows: (8,) 1.Snidgha gandush 2.Shaman gandush 3. Shodhan gandush 4.Roopan gandush. Indication of gandush:  (9)   1. Tingling of teeth 2.disease of mouth caused by vata 3.shaky teeth Indication of gandush : (10)   1. Dryness of mouth 2.cracking lips 3.sensitivity pain. In this article, we are tried to review the various Gandush  drugs and its benefits as well as action on oral disease of oral cavity. So there are many formulations for gandush are available in Ayurvedic text, we are focusing on only 2 formulations which are explained in Ashtang Hridaya.

Aims- To evaluate Doshagana Properties in formulation of Gandush & Kaval.

Objective – To find out the drug efficacy with the help of their properties like Rasa Virya Vipak

Material and Methods :

Procedure : The person shoulder face & neck should be massaged & fomented. Keeping his face slightly lifted up. He should hold the liquid in his mouth till the mouth get filled with kapha till the nose and eyes become secretory after which it is spat out.(11)

Schedule for Gandush : The medicated fluid or medicated paste is kept in mouth with concentrated mind without any swiss movement till the collection of kapha in mouth , nasasrava (running nose) , and netrasrava ( watering of eyes ) then the fluid is spit out (12)

Indication for Gandush : Dantaharsh ( tingling of teeth ), DantaChala ( shaky teeth ), Mukha roga Vataj ( disease of mouth cause by vata ). Gandush of water mixed with paste of tila in lukewarm state of cold.(13)

Benefits of kaval : Swarabhed ( strength of voice ), hanubalam ( strength of jaws ), strength of face, better taste perception , strong & healthy teeth, Resistance again Doshaja or Agantuja Mukharog , (14) . Regular practice of gandush till tail with not suffering from Kantashosha ( dryness of mouth ) , Oshtasputana ( cracking lips ) , Dantakshaya ( loss of teeth ) Dantashula ( dental pain ) Dantaharsha ( sensitivity ). (15)

Samyak lakshana of kaval : vyadhiapachaya ( disease subside ) Trushti ( feeling of freshness ) Vaishadya ( cleansing effect ) Vaktralaghuta ( lightness of mouth ) , Indriyaprasada ( clarity of sense Organ ) (16)

Hinayoga lakshana of kaval : stiffness, excitation of kapha , loss of test (17)

Atiyog lakshana of kaval :   mukhapak ( stomatitis ), sosa ( dryness of mouth ) , Trushna ( thirst ) arucchi ( anorexia ) , klama ( exhaustion ) (18)

Formation 1: Ashtang hridaya; Uttar tantra, 22/104. The ingredients of 1st  formulation:  Patol, Shunthi, Triphala, Indrayan, Trayman, Kutki, Haldi, Daruharidra, Guduchi, Madh (19)

Formulation 2: Ashtang hridaya; Uttar tantra, 22/107. The ingredients of 2nd  formulation:  Khadir, Agaru, Triphala, Arjun, Madyanti, Irimed. (20)

Observation -


1. PATOLA:  Pharmacological activity : Patol have  chemo preventive activity, Antihyperglycemic and Antihyperlipedemic activity, laxative activity, anti-inflammatory and anti-nociceptive activity, cholesterol lowering activity.(21)

2. Shunthi: Shunthi stimulates digestion, absorption, relieve constipation and flatulence by increasing muscular activity in the digestive tract (22) as well as it significantly reduces nausea and vomiting. (23) it is good suppressant of gut colic and diarrhoea. (24) Shunthi could be used as a anti-thrombotic and anti-inflammatory agent.(25)


 a) AMLA: Pharmacological activity on amla: Antioxidant (26) hypoglycemic, anti-inflammatory, Antihyperglycemic, Antihyperlipedemic,(27,) antipyretic, analgesic, antitussive, antiatherogenic, adaptogenic, cardioprotective, gastroprotective, antianemic, wound healing, anti-atherosclerotic, hepatoprotective,. In addition, experimental studies have shown that amla and some of its phytochemicals such as Gallic acid, ellagic acid, pyrogallol, some norsesquiterpenoids, corilagin, geraniin,  elaeocarpusin, and prodelphinidins B1 and B2 also possess antineoplastic effects. Amla is also reported to possess radio modulatory, Antimutagenic effects decreases lipid peroxidation decreases ornithine decarboxylase radio protective agent chemo preventive agent (28).

b) BIBHITAK: Pharmacological effects as follows: Analgesic activity , Antihypertensive effect (29), Antispasmodic and Bronchodilator properties (30), Antimicrobial activity (31) Antioxidant activity (32), wound healing activity (33), immunological activity (34), Acute – subacute toxicities (35)   Hepatoprotective activity (36),

c) HARITAKI:  Haritaki is used to treat Ophthalmic, itching, edema (37) it is used as an Antioxidant and neuroprotective drug (38). This plant is also used for treating piles, dropsy, diarrhoea, biliousness, headaches, dyspepsia and ascites [39].It is also used for heart disease, inflammation, brain dysfunction [40]   .

4. INDRAYAN: Pharmacological activities 0f Indrayan: Indrayan have antioxidant activity (41), Anti hyperlipidemia activity (42), Anti fertility by decrease level of cholesterol (43), anti-microbial of alkaloids’ (44), anti-diabetic effects by glycosides (45)

5. TRAYMAN: The roots of the plant are used as bitter tonic, antiperiodic, expectorant, astringent, stomachic, anthelmintic, antipsychotic, anti-inflammatory, sedative antibacterial. (46)

6. KUTAKI: Kutaki is used as medicine for cough, cold; fever (47).It is used to cure jaundice, diarrhoea and dysentery. (48) Pharmacological activity: Kutki have Antimicrobial activity (49), antibacterial activity (50), cytotoxicity (51), anti-mutagenic activity (52), nephroprotective activity (90), anti-inflammatory activity (53), and antioxidant activity (54).

7. HALDI: Turmeric enhances wound healing (55).Turmeric lower serum cholesterol levels (56).Extract of turmeric suppresses symptoms associated with arthritis (57) Turmeric protects against pancreatitis (58).  Turmeric extract corrects cystic fibrosis defects (59) Turmeric constituents inhibit scarring (60)

8. DARUHARIDRA: Berberis aristata   DC . Commonly knowns as Daruharidra are a popular drug which has been used globally. Charak Samhita   prescribed that the extract of the plant be taken internally for treatment of hemorrhage, piles, pruritus, shotha (Inflammation), eye disease   and alopecia.   Described it as being useful internally in indigestion, deficiency of breast milk, and in uterine and vaginal disorders. (61)  Treat allergies, metabolic disorders, ophthalmic, and other eye diseases, treat bleeding piles, anti-osteoporosis, treat skin diseases, menorrhagia, fever, diarrhea, dysentery cholera, jaundice, ear infections, anti-bacterial, anti-fungal, anti-inflammatory analgesic, anti-pyretic, anti-diabetic, and anti-hepatopathic (62)

9. GUDUCHI: Guduchi mentioned in Ayurvedic text of Ayurvedic system of medicine like Charak, Sushrut, Ashtang Hridaya and other varies text like Bhavprakash, Dhanvantari Nighantu. (63) Tiktaa- saka varga (vegetables) and claimed to be useful in treating fever, asthma, anorexia. (64)  Indicated in fever, gout, jaundice. (65)  Skin infections, chronic diarrhoea, and dysentery like G.I.T infection. (66) To cure bleeding piles, curing itching, erysipelas. (67)Guduchi mainly contains alkaloids, glycosides, steroids, sesquiterpenoids, aliphatic compounds, essential oils, mixture of fatty acids and polysaccharides. The alkaloids include berberine, bitter gilonin, non-glycoside gilonin gilosterol. (68)

10.MADH: Pharmacological Effects: Madh have antioxidant activity (69), Antimicrobial activity (70), Antifungal effect, Antiviral activity (71), Anti-inflammatory activity (72).


  1. KHADIR:

Khadir is used as medicine for Asthma, cough, diarrhea, and dysentery, boils, in skin infection and sores and for stomatitis. The plant part used as astringent, bactericide, refrigerant, stimulant .The bark is used as a antipyretic, anti-inflammatory, in bronchitis, ulcers, anemia. (85) used for expel worms, heal wounds, and suppress the coughing (86)

  1. AGARU :

Agaru reduces cough and helps in Bronchitis and asthma. Agaru is used as s mouth freshener. Because of its cooling effect it is used in fever associated with chills both internally and externally.  It may be used in toothache, headache. Pharmacological effect of Agaru having Antioxidant, Hepatoprotective activity , Anti-inflammatory activity, Anti diabetic activity, Anti-pyretic activity, Analgesic activity, Anti histamine activity, Laxative effect, Anti-microbial activity (87) .

  1. TRIPHALA: As mentioned in formulation 1.
  2. ARJUN:

Bark of Arjuna is used in the  fever and high blood pressure.  Bark and juice  of arjuna is used as Antacid (88) It is also used in treatment of snake bite and scorpion sting(89)

  1. MADYANTI :Pharmacological activity having Analgesic and antipyretic activity , Anti-inflammatory activity, Anti-arthritic activity (90), Anti-ulcer activity , Anti diabetic activity Anti-fungal activity(91)  Antiviral activity ,Antimalarial activity Anti fertility activity (92)
  2. IRIMED :Pharmacological activity: Irimed having anti-inflammatory activity, Anti-cancer activity, anti-obesity, antiaging activity. Hepatoprotective activity, anti-diabetic properties (93), Antimicrobial activity , anthelminthic , antioxidant (94) .

table 1

table 2


Mode of action Gandoosha and Kavala

The saliva consists of lysozyme, an enzyme and antibody IgA, which are bacteriostatic and antimicrobial in nature. The Gandush and Kavala increase the pressure in the mouth, which stimulates the stretch reflex i.e. the presso receptors resulting in stimulation of the salivary nuclei in brain stem. This results in increased activity of parasympathetic motor fibers of facial and glossopharyngeal nerves and increases the salivary output, which is further stimulated by the chemical constituents stimulating the oral chemo receptors  and hence the Gandush and Kavala maintains and cures the oral environment.[100]

Formulation 1: In this formulation the drugs are Chemo protective, hyperlipidemia, anti-inflammatory, Anti-thrombotic, they act on GIT. They have ushna Virya, Tiktaa Katu, kashay ras, and Katu Vipak so mostly acts on vata vikar.

Formulation 2:  the dugs are act on stomatitis, ulcers, G.I.T., URTI and worms and Urdhwajatrugat Vikar. They have anushnashit , Laghu, Ruksha properties so they are Tridoshaghna  according to Ayurveda.


Above formulations are based on dosh samprapti. So according to Doshaghnata we can use the drugs. This is our small efforts how these drugs will be act by their Doshaghnata as well by their qualities. Gandush upholding the internal hygiene of body as well as cure the disease specifically related head, neck, ears, mouth & eyes. Oral route is common way for entry of various micro-organisms that which are going to cause illness to oral area & systemic illness. Gandush bioactive ingredients present in the drug having property Anti-inflammatory, Immuno- modulatory & Anti-oxidants. Gandush to prevent the entry of causative micro-organisum.


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