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Review Article

Year: 2023 |Volume: 4 | Issue: 09 |Pages: 36-46

An appraisal on concept of Anguli Pramana in Ayurveda

About Author

Jugade V.1 , Khot L.B.2

1Professor, Department of Rachana Shareer, M. S. Ayurvedic Medical College Hospital & Research Institute. Gondia. (MS)

2Associate Professor, Department of Stree roga and Prasuti tantra M. S. Ayurvedic Medical College Hospital & Research Institute. Gondia.

Correspondence Address:

Dr. Vandana Jugade Professor, Department of Rachana Shareer, M. S. Ayurvedic Medical College Hospital & Research Institute. Kudwa, Gondia. (MS) Mob no. – 9422831561 Email id -

Date of Acceptance: 2023-10-15

Date of Publication:2023-09-22


Source of Support: Nil

Conflict of Interest: None declared

How To Cite This Article: Jugade V., Khot L.B. An appraisal on concept of Anguli Pramana in Ayurveda. Int J Ind Med 2023;4(8):36-46

Keywords: Anguli, Anjali Pramana, Swa-angula, Ayama, Vistara, Measurement.


The only medical science whose roots can be traced back to the Vedas is Ayurveda. According to Ayurveda, in order to be a successful doctor, one must be an expert in anatomy and have excellent observation skills, as each person is unique in terms of physical, physiological, and psychological characteristics.[1] The concept of Praman Sharira (measurements of the human body) is addressed in Rachana Sharira (anatomy). Acharyas explains vital human bodily factors in this topic. In Charaka-Samhita Vimansthan, Sushruta-Samhita Sutrasthan, and Ashtang-Sangraha, Swa-anguli praman (individual finger breadth measurement) is indicated. Samhitas also convey the notion of Ayam-Vistara.[2] The principle of Sama Ayam and Vistara was introduced by Acharya Charaka, who defined Ayam as a person's height and Vistara as the distance between the tips of two hands placed horizontally parallel to shoulders. Acharya has detailed the eight undesirable varieties of bodily constitution in Charaka samhita's adhyaya, including Sthoulya and Krusha types. The word Pramana comes from the Sanskrit word Prama, which means right understanding, and it refers to the different ways that may be employed to identify the details of anything. Pramana Sharira is an Ayurvedic idea that includes a variety of approaches for gaining scientific and exact information. According to academics, one can obtain scientific confirmation by doing research.[3]

Mana, according to Ayurveda, are the methods for measuring and weighing oneself. Pautava Mana denotes weight measurement, Dravya Mana denotes fluid component measurement, and Payya Mana denotes length measurement. Anguli and Anjali Pramana are two techniques for evaluating many features of the human body. An Anguli Pramana is a Sharira Pramana instrument for determining various body component measurements. Anguli Pramana is one of the most important ideas of Ayurveda, the ancient Indian medicinal system.[4,5]

Aim and Objectives

· To explore the concepts related to anthropometry in Ayurvedic

· To explore the fundamentals of Pramana in clinical use

Ayurvedic literature on Sharir Rachana provides a full explanation of bodily proportions and constituents. Pramana Sharira is the term used in our classics to describe this subdivision that emphasises the importance of measures or Anthropometry. Pramana, on the other hand, is a term that refers to the principle of measuring diverse biological elements. In medical applied science, it is extremely important. The smart physician should conduct the Pariksha of Karyadesha, i.e., Aatur Sharira, before beginning the Chikitsa, which is considered Karya in the area of medicine. Dashvidha Pariksha vidhi was explained by Acharya Charaka, and Praman Pariksha is one of them.[6] The fundamental purpose of Pariksha is to get information about the Bala of Rogi, which Acharya Sushruta believed to be the most important instrument for obtaining wisdom.

The Sharira Praman is the only method for identifying an individual's Ayu. Many hypothetical concepts are described in the Ayurvedic classical literatures. Anguli Pramana of various sections of the body is clearly explained in the classics. The descriptions of the measurements of the different bodily parts given by our Acharyas would be appreciated by Rogi Pariksha[7,8]. Because each person's physical makeup is unique, Swa-angula Pramana aids in the application of Shastras and Yantras to the patient's own fingers. This approach may be used to current medical research to improve precision and specificity in sports, forensic medicine, design, mechanical limb transplantation, and other domains.

Pramana Sharira[9,10]

Pramana denotes measures, whereas Sharira denotes Deha (Body). Anguli Pramana and Anjali Pramana are the two varieties of Pramana described in Ayurvedic Classics. Other bodily constituents, such as fluid, are measured using the Anjali Pramana. Anguli Pramana, on the other hand, is based on Swanguli Pramana, which is used to measure the dimensions of various Anga pratyanga. Pramana is one of the Dashavidha pariksha bhavas, according to Acharya Charaka.

  • According to Charaka - Manushya deha is 84 angula, according to Charaka. Sama Sharir is a Sharir in which the vertical length of Sharira (Ayam) and the length of both hands Vistara are equal. And if traits like Bala, Oja, Sukh, Dhana, Aishwarya, and ayu aren't there, they become vice versa.
  • According to Sushruta - The length of Sharira is 120 Angula by Swa-anguli pramana by lifting both hands upwards and standing on the Padagra. Dirghayu, Dhanasampanna, will be that person. Heena dhanasampanna, Madhyam ayu, Madhyam dhanasampanna, Madhyam dhanasampanna, Madhyam ayu, Madhyam dhanasampanna, Madhyam dhanasampanna, Madhyam dhanasampanna, Madhyam dhanasampanna,
  • According to Vagbhata – Sharir's length is 3 1/2 hasta, according to Vagbhata.

Sharira's Pramana is 84 Angula on average in a typical body. The individual should be assessed by measuring Anga pratyanga with Swa-angula pramana as the unit of measurement. It aids in the identification of an individual's Ayu and Bala. Dirghayu refers to a person or a patient who has the right combination of Anga pratyangas.

Some of the technical terms used for Anguli Pramana

It is the distal and movable part of the upper limb and lower limb; they are of twenty in number and of five types.

  1. Angushta
  2. Tarjani
  3. Madhyam Anguli
  4. Anamika
  5. Kanishta

Anguli Pramana is a relative unit to denote length, breadth and circumference. Angula can be taken as;

  1. Width of the Madhyama Parva of the Madhyama Angula.
  2. Measurement obtained by taking the length of the Madhyama Angula and dividing it by five
  3. Measurement obtained by taking the width of the palm and then dividing by Four.

Every person's length and width of fingers varies from one another. As a result, to measure the Anga-Pratyanga, one's own Anguli Pramana is used, which is referred to as Swanguli Pramana.

Swa- anguli Pramana

Swanguli pramana is used in Ayurveda to measure several body characteristics. Using our own Swanguli pramana, we may measure our own body and other structures. Swanguli pramana should be used to measure our body's height, width, length, and other structures. This means that everyone is unique in terms of size, form, life expectancy, happiness, and so on. So, according to Ayurveda, we should utilise the Swanguli pramana to measure our own bodies. Anguli Pramana must be included in Rugna pariksha as part of Dashavidh pariksha, according to Charaka. Dashavidh pariksha is beneficial in comprehending Rogi's bala and vyadhi. According to Sushruta, the Anga Pratyanga pramana is beneficial for judging.

Ayam and Vistara

Ayam refers to a person's height, whereas Vistara refers to the distance between the tip of the middle finger on the right hand and the tip of the middle finger on the left hand. If a person's Ayama and Vistara are almost equal, he will live a long life and have good Bala, Oja, Sukham, Aishwaryam, and Vitta.

Some Acharyas in the Ayurvedic Samhita have suggested the following measurements for Ayam:

  • According to Sushruta the Ayam is 120 anguli.
  • According to Charaka the Ayam is 84 anguli.
  • According to Ashtang Hridaya Sharir, the Ayam is 31/2 hasta.

Pramana of Pratyangas (body parts)[11,12]

In ayurvedic literature the anthropometric techniques are personalized and various points are considered such as

  • Shira (heads circumference) the maximum distance round the head with the tape placed above the eyebrow ridges and positioned over the greatest posterior projection at the back of the head.
  • Skandha (shoulder joint)
  • Aaratani (from elbow joint to little finger)
  • Prabhu (shoulder joint to elbow joint)
  • Prapani (from elbow joint to wrist joint)
  • Jangha (from knee joint to ankle joint) [length] [circumference]
  • Uru (from hip joint to knee joint) [length] [circumference]
  • Janu (knee joint) [circumference]
  • Gulpha (ankle joint) [circumference]
  • Parshini (Heels) [length] [breadth]

Anjali Pramana :

Anjali Pramana is based on the Swa-Anjali Pramana principle. It's a highly specialised method that differs from person to person. Anjali is the primary unit of measurement for Dhatu, Rasa (tissue/fluid), and Rakta in the body, according to Ayurveda. It is useful in determining an individual's physiological characteristics. Anjali Pramana is measured as the quantity of liquid contained in the both hands when they are combined to create the Samputa [8 Kudava is the unit of measurement for Anjali Pramana, with one Kudava equaling the quantity that fills a vessel with dimensions of four Anguli (both length and breadth) composed of mud, metal, or other materials. One Anjali is another name for a unit of one Kudava.

The Dhatu, Rasa, Rakta, Mala, Mutra, and other measurements are described in Ayurveda texts. The body's fluids include urine, blood, Mala, perspiration, lymph, and other substances that circulate throughout the body. Scholars have mentioned about the quantities of various fluids in the body such as

  • Udaka is ten Anjali
  • Ahara Rasa is nine Anjali
  • Pitta component if five Anjali
  • Shleshma is six Anjali;
  • Shonita is eight Anjali;
  • Purisha is seven Anjali
  • Mutra is four Anjali
  • Vasa is three Anjali
  • Meda (fat) is two Anjali
  • Majja is one Anjali while Oja and semen constitutes half Anjali [8].

Significance of Anguli Pramana in Ayurveda

Pramana is one of the Dashavidha pariksh abhavas, according to Acharya Charaka. Ayupariksha is a necessary process before beginning therapy. Ayupariksha is performed on the grounds of measuring the various Anga pratyanga of the body. As a result, Pramana pariksha is critical in determining an individual's Ayu. With the use of Anguli Pramaan, the assessment and categorization of Sharirik bala (immunity), i.e., Uttam bala (good immunity), Heen bala (poor immunity), and Madhyam bala (moderate immunity), may be evaluated. Sama purusha (anatomically proportional healthy person) has Aayam (vertical height) and Vistar (arm span) equal to each other, and these people have Uttam ayu (longevity), Bala, Oja, Sukha, Aishvarya, and so on.[14,15]

The Person having Anguli Pramana more than 84 Angula or less than 84 Angula will have Ayu, bala, oja, etc. Heen or Madhya (moderate) (Poor). Before treating a patient, the physician should check his Ayu (life span); if he has a long life span, the physician should check his Vyadhi (disease), Ritu (season), Agni (digestive power), Vayah (age), Deha (body build), Bala (strength), Satva (mind), Satmya (habituations accustoms), Prakriti (constitution), Bhesaja (drug).[16,17]Pramana is beneficial in Panchakarma procedures such as Uttarbasti, Virechna, and Dhumapana, among others. Specifications of Bastinetra insertions are given in terms of Angula while characterising the Uttara Basti. When doing Uttara Basti in an adult woman's genital organs, the nozzle should be entered up to 4 Angulas, and when performing douche in their urethral tube, it should be put up to 2 Angulas. It should be put up to 1 Angula in the vaginal channel of young females. The length of the Dhumapananetra is measured in Angula when it is described. The smoking pipe for the Virechana should have a length of 24 fingers and a width of 24 fingers, measured with one's own fingers. Pramana has also been used by Ayurvedic academics in the subject of Dravyaguna.[18,19]

It aids in assessing the morphological characteristics of diverse medicinal plants. They give measurements in Angulas for the length of the roots, stem, and leaf breadth, among other things. Some medicinal plant measures are expressed in terms of Angula, such as Shwetakapoti, a leafless plant with a root diameter of two fingers.


In order to cure any disease, it has to be first identified and this is done by the process of Pariksha or examination. The tenfold examination of a patient, known as Dashavidha pariksha, provides a comprehensive picture of the ill individual, from his general nature to the situation in which he or she has been impacted by the ailment. The Dashavidha pariksha may be thought of as the observation of how much the afflicted individual is 'different from normal' from an anatomical standpoint. To comprehend the deviation from normal, one must first comprehend what is normal, which is where disciplines like anatomy come into play. Among the Dashavidha pariksha, the exams of the Sara, Samhanana and Pramana require considerable basic anatomical knowledge. Sharira pramana, or sharira pramana, are metrics related to the sharira pramana.[20,21]

Pramana Sharira is defined as knowledge of the body in the context of life-span, as well as measurements of bodily parts and sub-parts. The body was described using only one's own fingertips. The complete body is 84 Angula in vertical length, and it is in Sama Pramaa when the vertical height of the body is equal to the horizontal length in position when the arms are abducted up to 90 degrees. Longevity, strength, immunity, happiness, dominance, riches, and other attributes are bestowed on those with regular physical measurements. Those with a smaller or larger body have attributes that are diametrically opposed to this. If the expert physician progresses after assessing the life-span, particularly on the basis of component measurements, he will be successful in his task.[22]

This entire explanation of Pramana demonstrates that the concept of Pramana was formed very early in the Ayurvedic era. In Ayurveda, the principle of Pramana is applied in a variety of ways in various areas such as Panchakarma, Dravyaguna, Bhaiajya kalpana, Sharia Rachana, and so on. The concept of Pramana was evolved by contemporary science in the shape of a new discipline called anthropometry. The only distinction is that in Ayurveda, measurements were done using Swa-Angula. There was no development of measurement devices, but contemporary science has created a plethora of them, including vernier callipers, anthropometers, etc.[23,24]


Pramana was used as a criterion for determining the height and measurements of body components, which were used to assess the patient before and after therapy. Prakriti aids in determining an individual's overall build and characteristics, which is significant in recognizing vyadhi and forecasting illness prognosis, as well as planning therapy appropriately. Acharya Charaka included Pramana pariksha among the Dashavidha rogipariksha, which deals with Ayu, Bala, and other gods. The length, width, and circumference of various components are measured using the individual's fingerbreadth as the unit measurement. The concept of Pramana was extended by contemporary science in the form of a new field called anthropometry . The only distinction is that in Ayurveda, measurements were done using Swa-Angula. Science is stretching its wings in every sector as time goes on, but the fundamental principles stay constant. As a result, current science adheres to all of these old ideas, and the information contained in modern medical literature is only a modification of Ayurvedic knowledge or literature.



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